# Useful date functions

Excel users often struggle with functions, which are total more than 350. Many of them will learn on my trainings, but how to remember them after a long time? In this article we will focus on some useful functions for working with dates. For each function you will find not only a general description, but a tip for specific applications. If this guide has helped you, become a fan on Facebook and recommend this site to your friends, it can be useful for them too.

## Function TODAY

=TODAY()

This function is very simple, because it displays the current today’s date. This date is automatically recalculated every other day. TODAY function is special because it is one of the few functions thah have nothing in brackets, therefore does not require any arguments. Still, do not forget to add empty brackets, Excel would report an error if omitted. I use it eg. to determine the number of days remaining to pay the invoice.

## Function WEEKDAY

=WEEKDAY(serial_number,[return_type])

• serial_number… this is a little confusing name parameter, but represents date or a date cell
• [return_type] … optional argument specifying the local or the first day of the week, the Czech Republic used a value of 2, ie. week starts on Monday

This function determines the number (order) of day in the week based on the selected date. It is useful, for example in conditional formatting of weekends in a date serie, or in the planning data in the table, with emphasis on the number of day in the week.

## Function EOMONTH

=EOMONTH(start_date, months)

• start_date … represents the initial date or the cell with date
• months … number representing the number of months before or after the start date

This function detects the last day of a particular month. Seeking month based on the initial date and from it either moves into the past or into the future of a given number of months. I use it to determine when comes the last day of the current month, when making the invoice with the pay date at the end of the month. You do not have to look at the calendar how many days has the month.

## Function NETWORKDAYS

=NETWORKDAYS(start_date, end_date, [holidays])

• start_date … represents the initial date or the cell with date
• end_date … represents the final date or the cell with date
• [holidays] … optional argument with reference to the cells containing the holidays dates (non-working days)

This function calculates the number of work days between two observed days. Argument [holidays] is optional, as Excel does not know our or foreign holidays. That is why we first prepare them in cells and then function between the dates misses it as nonworking days. The picture shows the number of work days from 12.1. by the end of 2015. The edge days are counted, weekends and automatically omitted.